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Maximizing innovations by expanding HIV self-testing and growing the number and type of settings to reach people with HIV services may help meet national goals to end the HIV epidemic.

HIV Declines among Young People, New Infections Drop

Increased investments, innovation, and focus on equity are vitally needed to end the HIV epidemic

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

CDC is one of the major operating components of the Department of Health and Human Services.

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Published:May 26, 2023
|3 min read
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Estimated annual new HIV infections were 12 percent lower in 2021 compared to 2017—dropping from about 36,500 infections to about 32,100—according to new CDC data published recently. The decline was driven by a 34 percent decrease in new infections among 13- to 24-year-olds, mostly among gay and bisexual males. However, HIV prevention efforts must progress further and faster for gains to reach populations equitably and for national goals to end the HIV epidemic to be reached.

According to the CDC’s latest estimates, annual HIV infections dropped from 9,300 in 2017 to 6,100 in 2021 among 13- to 24-year-olds. Declines among young gay and bisexual males (who account for roughly 80 percent of new infections in this age group) drove the trend, falling from an estimated 7,400 infections to about 4,900 during the timeframe.

“Our nation’s HIV prevention efforts continue to move in the right direction,” said the CDC director, Rochelle P. Walensky, MD, MPH. “Longstanding factors, such as systemic inequities, social and economic marginalization, and residential segregation, however, stand between highly effective HIV treatment and prevention and people who could benefit from them. Efforts must be accelerated and strengthened for progress to reach all groups faster and equitably.”

Longstanding factors limit gains among Black and Hispanic/Latino people

The decline in annual HIV infections among young gay and bisexual males was not uniform across all racial and ethnic groups. Declines were lower among young Black/African American (subsequently, Black) and 13- to 24-year-old Hispanic/Latino gay and bisexual males than young White gay and bisexual males, suggesting that HIV prevention and treatment are not reaching everyone in this group equitably—and reflecting broader disparities that hinder HIV prevention.

Among key HIV prevention indicators, the greatest improvement was in the number of people taking PrEP to prevent HIV. In 2021, about 30 percent of the 1.2 million people who could benefit from PrEP were prescribed it—a notable improvement compared to about 13 percent prescribed PrEP in 2017. However, although most people who could benefit from PrEP are Black or Hispanic/Latino people, estimates suggest relatively few Black people or Hispanic/Latino people were prescribed PrEP in 2021.

There were also small increases in other key prevention measures, but not at the pace needed to reach national goals. More people with HIV were aware of their status in 2021 than 2017, with an uptick from 86 percent to 87 percent. Though data aren’t directly comparable due to reporting differences, the portion of people with diagnosed HIV who were virally suppressed due to effective treatment was slightly higher in 2021 than in 2017—up from 63 percent to 66 percent. Viral suppression was lower among Black people and Hispanic/Latino people than White people.

New HIV infections continue to show disparities in treatment and prevention

“At least three people in the US get HIV every hour—at a time when we have more effective prevention and treatment options than ever before,” said Robyn Neblett Fanfair, MD, MPH, acting director of the CDC’s Division of HIV Prevention. “These tools must reach deep into communities and be delivered faster to expand progress from some groups to all groups.”

To realize this goal and end the HIV epidemic, authorities must:

  • increase investments in proven HIV prevention programs through the “Ending the HIV Epidemic in the U.S.” (EHE) initiative,

  • maximize innovations by expanding HIV self-testing and growing the number and type of settings to reach people with HIV services, like STI clinics, and

  • center equity in every aspect of our work so HIV prevention interventions better reach people disproportionately affected by HIV.

Tools to end the HIV epidemic in the US are available, but the nation will not succeed until they equitably reach the people who need them to stay healthy.

- This press release was originally published on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website